Soils

In the superpáramo unconsolidated structural soils are heavily influenced under nightly freezing and thawing in the early morning. This results in a number of daily frost heaving phenomena at the surface, especially on humid ground.

In the páramo at lower altitude a humic black A horizon is common, mostly limited to the upper grass páramo and especially in the lowermost páramos on level ground and in depressions. These andosoils are well developed in the lower páramo and under Andean forest.